Q & A – Was Mary’s DNA passed on to Jesus inside her womb thru her blood supply?





I have just read your article titled, “Did Jesus Have Mary's DNA," and it was unbelievably interesting and it made perfect sense to me - a Christian that is not well versed on this subject at all.  Your article just makes sense.

I would like to know if the fetus in the womb has its mothers blood.  I understand the placenta of the mother supplies nutrition and oxygen to the fetus, but does the fetus ever have the blood of the mother?  If the fetus manufactures its own blood, does this also confirm that Jesus was not infected through the bloodline from Adam?

I know it says somewhere in Leviticus that, " the life is in the blood," or something to that effect.  Does this scripture have any bearing upon the validity of my question?

Can it be safely said that no human being has ever genetically inherited his or her mother’s blood?  If we have inherited our mother's blood type, does this have anything to do with her actual blood being the source or supply of blood to the fetus in the womb?

Please could you shed more light on this area for me?

Take care,



Craig’s Reply:




Hi Grant,


You’ve joined the ranks of an ever-increasing list of folks that have written to me concerning this article.  That particular article was just a sub-note to another series I was and am currently working on.  If you are interested in this series, and want to check out the source of inspiration for the DNA article, just click onto the hyperlinks below:


Rethinking The Fall Of Lucifer & The Temptation Of Jesus – PART 3


Section B: You Shall Surely Die… Genetic Consequences For Sin


Rethinking The Fall Of Lucifer & The Temptation Of Jesus – PART 5


Section A: The Seed of the Woman & DNA


Section B: The Son Of Man Has Life In Himself


Section C: Alleles… The Genetic Edge


CONCLUSION – DNA, Alleles, Mitochondria & Fulfillment of Scripture


I’m not a medical doctor Grant, but my understanding is that the baby in the womb has a separate blood supply from its mother, except in very rare physical anomaly, where a defective mutation results in some deformation or atypical growth.  Even so, such an abnormality does not preclude your assessment.


As far as Jesus not being infected thru the bloodline of Mary, or Joseph for that matter, yours’ is a question of how DNA contributes to gamete cellular formation of the fetus, rather than a determination of how a baby in the womb maintains a blood supply independent from its mother’s blood supply.  Human reproduction requires the genes of both male and female parent to create the zygote (the earliest visible stage of the fetal growth).  This means Jesus’ cellular structure, including the female chromosome with its mitochondria and allelemorphic DNA (considered necessary in the formation of the human gene) came from Mary. 


Mary’s blood supply was essential in supplying nutrients as building blocks to biophysically generate the fertile ovum (or egg) that she released from one of her ovaries during her ovulation cycle.  God procreated life by supernaturally positioning the male sperm within the ovum itself during Mary’s ovulation.  This means her blood was the key factor in making the egg, whereas the sperm seed, (i.e. the male chromosome & whatever allelelic & mitochondria DNA were necessary), God procreated.  Then He used pinpoint accuracy and timing to insure the sperm-egg fission took place at the very instant Mary’s ovary released the fertile ovum, making contact with it at the exact second it traveled down her fallopian tube.  That’s exactly how it happened Grant.


It’s my understanding the reason Adam’s male descendents were excluded from the human reproductive process that was used by God to create the zygote, (becoming a fetus inside Mary’s womb), because of the effect of allelemorphic DNA from Adamic male genes influenced behavioral characteristics.  I also think there is good reason to believe God also kept in tact the male mitochondria DNA during fecundation and fertilization because the function of mitochondria was negatively altered thru Adam’s transgression.  On the day Adam sinned, his allelemorphic and mitochondrial DNA were adversely weakened and the human male gene pool passed on the Adamic behavioral characteristics to all successive generations. 


I am convinced that prior to his sinful disobedience, Adam’s mitochondria DNA was meant by the Creator (God) to be shared equally with the mitochondria of his wife during copulation and insemination of the fertile ovum, which began the human reproductive cycle.  The reason I postulate this as probable is what God said to Adam when He commanded him not to partake of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.


Genesis 2:15-18 Then the LORD God took the man and put him into the garden of Eden to cultivate it and keep it.  The LORD God commanded the man, saying, "From any tree of the garden you may eat freely; but from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat from it you will surely die."  Then the LORD God said, "It is not good for the man to be alone; I will make him a helper suitable for him." NASU


Many scholars and even more Christians throughout history have tried to explain what God meant when He said to Adam, “…for in the day that you eat from it you will surely die."  Because Adam continued living physically for hundreds of years, all kinds of educated guesses are used to form a reasonable explanation.  Some say the “day” is not a literal day (24 hour period of time), but rather a “prophetic day” and that the word “day” represents a one-thousand-year time frame, using 2 Peter 3:8b as the ‘proof text’ for this interpretation, “…with the Lord one day is like a thousand years, and a thousand years like one day.” (NASU)


In a prophetic sense, this interpretation has some degree of merit, but it still falls short of answering one vital question, “Why didn’t Adam LITERALLY DIE in a 24-hour-day, since the Genesis account of creation clearly specifies that each day was comprised of an, “evening and morning?”  In Genesis 1:5b we find The description of one day as what amounts to 24-hours, “And there was evening and there was morning, one day.”


The description of “one day” is repeated six times, once for each of first six days of creation in Genesis 1:5,8, 13, 19, 23, 31 and then in Genesis 2:2, by the seventh day God completed His work and He rested on the seventh day.  Finally, in Genesis 2:4 the account is summarized as, “This is the account of the heavens and the earth when they were created, in the day that the LORD God made earth and heaven.”


The problem with the one-day prophetic hypothesis is seen in Genesis 5:5, “So all the days that Adam lived were nine hundred and thirty years, and he died.”  Any way you look at it, Adam lived 930 years following his first sin, and this is why I believe the reference to Adam dying on the day he ate of the forbidden tree can be rationally explained in the deterioration of his male mitochondria DNA.  The other links I have included will provide you details concerning this subject matter, but suffice it to conclude that mitochondria are the DNA that regulate “life” in the physical body.  Had Adam not sinned, theoretically his offspring  would be “like” him, benefiting from both male and female mitochondrial DNA in reproduction. 


As things now exist, the male mitochondria DNA dies off at insemination, while only the female mitochondria DNA lives on in the fertilized embryo.  Mitochondria DNA however are not believed to affect human genetic behavioral characteristics, whereas the allele DNA do.  Medical science primarily identifies the alleles as DNA markers for genetically inherited behavior.  To do research online concerning this topic, you may want to use your computers’ search engine and type into it the words, “alleles and human behavior.”  A few years back the Federal government did some studies on fetal alcohol syndrome and the genetic predisposition of some babies to be involved in substance abuse.  I’m certain by now many more scientific researchers have gotten involved, since the study of biogenetics is moving at a rapid pace.


Text Box: Jesus overcame as a MAN of God, not as the, “God-Man.”  All living organisms produce offspring that begin as single celled organisms.  In the healthy human reproductive cycle a number of single-celled organisms multiply through conjugation (sexual intercourse) in a complex design that corresponds to fertilization.  This occurs when two related (i.e. – “like”) one-celled life forms called ‘organisms’ combine by fusion, exchange nucleic properties, and then break apart.  Each organism then makes a replica by fission.  God used Mary’s one-celled life forms called ‘organisms’ and those organisms He supernaturally created; once Mary’s cellular organism (ovum) and the cellular organism (sperm cell) made by God, nature took its normal course, the two cells combined by fusion, nucleic properties were exchanged, began breaking apart, started multiplying and this ongoing process resulted in Jesus’ life as a male human being.


The author of the Book of Hebrews describes Jesus the man as being, “…made LIKE his brethren in ALL things.”  God the Father used Mary’s healthy human reproductive system to procreate Jesus.  The New Testament scriptures teaches us that Jesus shared in the same flesh and blood as his ‘brethren.’  This was an essential part of God’s plan of redemption, so that His son could be tempted, tried, tested and overcome.  Jesus overcame as a MAN of God, not as the, “God-Man.”  Christianity uses outdated manmade traditions to explain why Jesus never sinned, but every attempt to describe him outside of scripture has proven vain and results in more confusion.


Christians need to go back to scripture for the answers instead of trying to explain Jesus in mysterious terms like, “he had Divine blood,” or that he was, “fully Divine & fully human,” (terms & expressions found nowhere in scripture).  His life speaks for itself by demonstrating how he overcame sin and the devil.  It is found in the pages of the Bible and corroborated by fact based medical discoveries in recent history.  Consider Jesus in the Garden of Gethsemane, kneeling before God in an agonizing prayer, pleading with his heavenly Father, that if this cup may pass, please let it pass!  That is not the prayer of “God” but of a man devoted completely TO God, evidenced by the words, “Nevertheless Father, YOUR WILL be done, not mine.”


The only way Jesus could become a truly sympathetic High Priest is by being a man; below is the NASU version of Hebrews 2:14-17 with the author’s notations inserted in {brackets} to delineate {God the Father} from the man {Jesus} and (parenthesis) inserted when defining noteworthy Greek words.


Hebrews 2:14-17 Therefore, since the children share in flesh and blood, he {Jesus} himself likewise also partook of the same, that through death he might render powerless him who had the power of death, that is, the devil, 15 and might free those who through fear of death were subject to slavery all their lives.  16 For assuredly he {Jesus} does not give help to angels, but he {Jesus} gives help to the descendant (Greek for descendant = spérmatos) of Abraham.  17 Therefore, he {Jesus} had to be made like his brethren in all things, so that he might become a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to make propitiation for the sins of the people.  18 For since he {Jesus} himself was tempted in that which he has suffered, he {Jesus} is able to come to the aid of those who are tempted. NASU


Once you understand Jesus as a man and dispose of the orthodox portrayal of him as the ‘God-Man’ passages like Hebrews 2:14-17 take on new meaning and can be interpreted with tremendous clarity of mind and heart.  For example, while preparing this reply, I noticed something profound in Hebrews 2:16, which reads, “For assuredly he {Jesus} does not give help to angels, but he {Jesus} gives help to the descendant (Greek for descendant = spérmatos) of Abraham.”  


The Greek word for “descendents” is spérmatos; this plural noun is the origin of the English word for ‘sperm.’  It is infrequently used in the New Testament as referencing the spiritual or physical offspring.  I used to believe the first pronoun, “he” in verse 16 refers to God the Father, because He provides help to the man Jesus as the, “descendant of Abraham.”    Once I reread this entire passage in its context, as I began making notations to delineate and identify to whom the pronouns apply in this passage, I realized Jesus (and not God) is the only “he”  used in verse 16. 


From this I determined the Greek word spérmatos is used in this particular case of the spiritual descendents of Abraham, i.e. the church; it speaks foremost to the Hebrew Christian converts, particularly because it does not have a definite article affixed to the noun in the Greek text.  As you may or may not be aware, Israel is called “the” physical seed of Abraham elsewhere in the New Testament, whereas Jesus is called “the” seed” of promise because he fulfills God’s covenant promise to Abraham’s spiritual descendents, being the Author of our faith as the church (see Galatians 3:16, 29; Romans 4:16-25). 


In Hebrews 2:17 the Greek words translated as, “He had to be made like His brethren in all things,” is transliterated from the Greek text, “homoiootheénai hína pánta toís adelfoís.”  The Greek word pánta (adverbially), is a very common term that means, “wholly, altogether, in all ways, in all things, in all respects.”  What is interesting however is the Greek word homoiootheénai; this word as Strong’s NT:3666 is generally transliterated from the Greek homoióo from hómoios and means, “to be or become like.” 


On the surface, this seems no big deal until comparing the use of homoióo and its word cognates in the New Testament .  The following list of scripture verses use homoióo: Matthew 6:8; 7:24, 26; 11:16; 13:24;18:23; 22:2; 25:1; Mark 4:30;Luke 7:31; 13:18, 20; Acts 14:11; Romans 9:29 & Hebrews 2:17.  Every single verse in this list uses homoiootheénai to liken only HUMANS, and never Deity.  Here’s a few examples:


Matthew 6:7-8 Jesus said, “And when you pray, do not keep on babbling like pagans, for they think they will be heard because of their many words.  Do not be like (homoióo) them, for your Father knows what you need before you ask him.”   NIV


Matthew 7:24 Jesus said, "Therefore whoever hears these sayings of Mine, and does them, I will liken (homoióo) him to a wise man who built his house on the rock.”   NKJV


Matthew 7:26 Jesus said, "Everyone who hears these words of Mine and does not act on them, will be like (homoióo) a foolish man who built his house on the sand.  NASU

Matthew 11:16 Jesus said, “But to what shall I liken (homoióo) this generation? It is like little children sitting in the marketplaces who call to their playmates.”  AMP


We can observe quite readily that Jesus was a man made to be ‘like his brethren’ in that his physical makeup was the same, and also that he was subject to the same rules that govern human behavior.  In other words, Jesus had the inherent capacity to choose good or evil, right or wrong, and obedience or disobedience.  It seems beyond the grasp of orthodox Christianity to take hold of this concept because of the widespread proliferation of doctrines such as the Trinity, as well as the varied church doctrines that teach forms of theological dualism.  Dualism was adapted and adopted by the early church fathers, who are responsible for the development of mainstream orthodox theology.


The church fathers were for the most part wolves in sheep’s clothing because they used Greek philosophy as the means by which the greater portion of the New Testament was interpreted.  In so doing, they also corrupted the purity of theological and Christological doctrine taught in scripture, replacing it with a Hellenistic blend of the New Testament scriptures  viewed thru the eyes of and with Greek syncretism.   The final outcome of their horrific compromise was manifest when they embraced pagan Greek concepts in relation to deity in general. 


These so-called “church fathers” in large part were of their father the devil.  They used their positions of church authority and laid claim to the lie that pagan philosophers, such as Plato, Aristotle, and later, the Jewish philosopher Philo were “inspired” by God in their rhetoric and/or writings, preparing the Hellenized Greeks (i.e. – Gentiles) for the gospel of Christ.  This is total bunk.  Throughout history GOD is the One that prepares the human heart and HE shows no partiality when dispensing mercy and forgiveness.


The Greeks and their Greco-Roman counterparts worshipped their foremost deities, such as Zeus, Hermes, and many others by depicting them as anthropomorphic-deity icons.  Their pantheon of pagan and occult gods and goddesses always included personages that were half-human-half-god.  This corruption was used throughout the second, third, fourth and fifth centuries A.D. by church fathers  to compromise the nature of Jesus Christ by making him MORE than just a man.  Not only did this make for a watered-down version of Jesus Christ, but accomplished their ultimate goal, which was to make the gospel of Christ more palatable to the citizens of the Roman Empire.  When Constantine convened the Council of Nicea in 325 A.D., this put a nail in the coffin and buried the truth for many centuries to follow.


Text Box: Jesus was and is a man in all respects, in all things, wholly and altogether.Armed with the clout of political-religious power, their new Christology gave these pompous religious hypocrites rationale to justify lives filled with excessive self-admiration.  This same excuse continues in the lives of Christians today, particularly the clergy, who go about armed with the pretext that no human could ever hope to attain to the same level of purity as Jesus Christ.  Why?  Simply because Jesus was and still is viewed as, “fully God & fully Man.”  Worse yet, they appeal to the “church fathers” for the means of interpreting the scripture, and like blind men leading the blind, take much of the Christian church with them.


Jesus was and is a man in all respects, in all things, wholly and altogether.  Yes, he did have an edge, so to speak, in that God the Father bypassed Adam’s gene pool, giving His son Jesus optimal chance for success in overcoming temptation, sin, and the devil himself.  God the Father restored to His son Jesus the same benefit the first Adam enjoyed, and then leveled the playing field using the human reproductive process, so that we as the church would have hope for being made whole and complete thru his life, death and resurrection.  God hand-picked Joseph and Mary to  insure Jesus was raised in a godly home, with godly parents to teach him the way of righteousness and the truth of scripture.


Christian teachers argue today that unless Jesus’ sacrifice was that of deity, it would never be efficacious as the propitiation for the sins of mankind.   There’s no doubt from definitions in the Hebrews’ passage that Jesus was conceived and born as part of the human reproductive  process to indemnify this description of him.    On the other hand, it was the decisions and choices he made for 33 ½ years as a MAN that qualified Jesus to be the spotless, sinless, “Lamb,” sacrifice, who takes away the sins of the world.  No doubt ALSO that Jesus, thru obedience, learned how to lean upon GOD for the strength and wisdom to overcome adversity and the adversary.  I cannot envision Jesus patting himself on the back and laying claim to victory just because he had a strong will.  Just as he demonstrated dependence on God when working miracles, Jesus tapped into his intimate relationship with God his Father to defeat the devil’s lies and the temptations of body, soul and spirit.


In the beginning God planned human conjugation as the method of sexual reproduction for the reason that it was designed to be good and pleasurable.  The internal deposit of semen occurs in the process of copulation, also known as coitus or sexual intercourse. This process is known as insemination.  Insemination enabled mankind and other living organisms to include the genetic cellular make-up from both male and female; these male and female reproductive cells are called ‘gametes.’ 


Obviously God did not use copulation to produce the motile sperm cell that Mary was impregnated with.  Instead, His presence was manifested to her in a haze of brilliancy as she was surrounded by His spirit.  Then God effortlessly created the male gamete cell within the fertile egg of this young maiden.  The male gamete that God created subsisted with all the necessary DNA molecules to produce a male human being, including allelomorphic and mitochondria properties.


In the 20th century modern medical science developed a method of insemination whereby both animal and human spermatozoa can be kept alive outside the body for long periods by freezing.  Artificially introduced into the female reproductive tract, such spermatozoa produce pregnancy in a remarkably high percentage of healthy women. For many decades now the method, called artificial insemination, has been used successfully in many animal species, including human reproduction, to produce offspring where either the male or the female is sterile.  This was no surprise to the Creator, who engineered all reproductive processes, but it proves this explanation of how Mary was impregnated is more viable than what futile doctrines many Christian theologians expect us to swallow and believe.


In reproduction gametes unite to form a single cell, known as a ‘zygote,’ which later undergoes successive cellular divisions; these form a new organism that grows into an unborn child in the womb. There are two basic terms used by medical science to describe the union of the male and female cells; these terms are, fecundation and fertilization are applied to the union of the male and female cells.  I’ve already discussed fertilization and fecundation is simply the act of impregnation.  A bit of trivia here, the use of the “F” word in profanity is a derogatory slang for ‘fecundate.’  I’ll leave it at that. 


In this form of sexual reproduction, half of the genes in the zygote, including those which are the carriers of inheritable genetic characteristics, come from one parent and half from the other parent.  In the case of Jesus, half came from Mary and half came from the sperm cell God created.  The human male reproductive cell, which is known as a sperm, is called a ‘motile cell.’  The word, “motile,” means, “capable of independent movement or motion.”  Male and female human beings are multicellular and individual humans have specialized organs called gonads that produce specialized sex cells called gametes.  I know I mentioned this already, but it bears repeating.


Upon fertilization, the genetic information is transferred from the small, motile spermatozoa (male gametes) to the much larger ova (female gametes).  The male motile spermatozoa looks like a microscopic tadpole (pollywog) and has a head containing the nucleus and a whip like tail it uses to generate motion and swim in search of the ovum.  The mitochondria DNA of the male gamete is contained inside the motile spermatozoa’s tail, which breaks off and dies during insemination, whereas the allele DNA remain in tact inside the head as it penetrates the outer lining of the ovum.  The human female reproductive cell, which is known as an egg or ovum, is a rounded cell many times larger than the sperm and containing large amounts of cytoplasm surrounding the nucleus.  Just the same, in normal sexual intercourse between healthy humans, millions of spermatozoa compete for the prize and only one wins (exceptions omitted so I can finish this article! J). 


The Creator of the universe simply produced the male gamete cell necessary for the procreation of Jesus, and in so doing, insured that Adam’s weakened behavioral characteristic traits were not involved.  Christians spiritualize this event beyond reason and assert that Jesus had, “Divine blood,” and attribute this to some ‘ineffable mystery’ beyond our comprehension.  That is nonsense.  If we mortal humans have demonstrated skill and success with artificial insemination, why can’t God simply make a gamete cell and do the same?


The human female normally has a 28-day reproductive or menstrual cycle, with ovulation usually occurring about 14 days before the onset of the menstruation.  Menstruation is the periodic vaginal discharge in humans and other mammals, which consists of blood and cells shed from the endometrium, or lining of the uterus.  Menstruation accompanies a woman's childbearing years, usually beginning between the ages of 10 and 16, at puberty, and most often ceasing between the ages of 45 and 50, at menopause. Menstruation is part of the process that prepares a woman for pregnancy. Each month the lining of the uterus thickens; if pregnancy does not occur, this lining breaks down and is discharged through the vagina. The three to seven days that menstruation lasts is called the menstrual period.


Mary was the young virgin chosen by God to bear the male child He would call His son Jesus.  She was most likely between the ages of 16-18 and was in her childbearing years.  It was no big deal for God to determine the time of her menstrual cycle.  In most women the menstrual cycle is about 28 days, but it can vary considerably even from one month to another.


Hormones in her bloodstream initiate a woman’s menstrual cycle; these hormones stimulate the ovaries, which are the two female organs that produce the ova, aka eggs.  In this sense, the egg used by God had to begin with genetic components produced by Mary.  Each month, hormones cause an egg in one of the two ovaries to mature and become capable of being fertilized and develop into a fetus.  The ovaries also produce hormones of their own, primarily estrogen, which cause the endometrium to thicken. About midway through the menstrual cycle, 14 to 15 days before the next period, the ovary releases the mature egg in a process called ovulation. The egg passes through the fallopian tube to the uterus. If the egg unites with a sperm on its way to the uterus, fertilization occurs and pregnancy ensues.


During Mary’s ovulation one of her ovary released a mature egg that passed through her fallopian tube on its way to the uterus; at the instant this happened, God created a sperm cell perfectly compatible and able to unite with the egg; fertilization occurred and the infant Jesus was procreated.  To my understanding and knowledge, this is the exact description of the scientific process that occurred.


The three to five days the egg takes to reach the uterus after being released by the ovary is known as the woman's fertile period. If fertilization does occur, the fertilized egg attaches itself to the enriched uterine lining and pregnancy continues. Menstruation does not occur during pregnancy, and a missed period is often the first indication of pregnancy a woman notices. If fertilization does not occur, the lining of the uterus does not receive the hormones it needs to continue the thickening process. Thus, the uterine lining breaks down and is discharged from the body during menstruation.


After fertilization of the egg, the resulting zygote undergoes cell division and differentiation to form the embryo. The embryo is implanted in the uterus and is nourished by the mother until almost completely developed. The period during which pregnant women carry their young internally is known as the period of gestation.  In humans the period of years during which reproduction can occur begins with the onset of puberty, and the reproductive capacity of the female ends at what is known as menopause, or when menstruation ceases.


So this is how I reconcile the processes used; Mary’s ovulation was normal and typical; her ovary released a mature egg, as it traveled down the fallopian tube, God inseminated the egg by creating the gamete cell that would unite with her fertile egg, making it now a fertilized egg, which then attached itself to the uterine wall, and the pregnancy began.


The passage from Leviticus concerning life in the blood would not have an application in our judgment concerning DNA and how it is involved in making the gamete.


Leviticus 17:11-12 For the life {of an animal sacrifice} is in the blood, and I have given it for you upon the altar to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood that makes atonement, by reason of the life which it represents. Therefore I have said to the Israelites, ‘No person among you shall eat blood, neither shall any stranger who dwells temporarily among you eat blood.’  


As you can see, this Old Testament passage is speaking to the issue of pagan rituals, including the drinking of the blood of an animal sacrifice, something forbidden by God in the Levitical and Deuteronomic codes.  The Jehovah Witnesses misuse this passage by erroneously contending it forbids blood transfusions because one person would be incidentally passing part of their “soul” to another thru the blood.  This too is nonsense, as the kingdom of God does not consist of flesh and blood.  But that’s a different topic. 


For information related to this topic, the following is a list of Bible studies or articles that you might find beneficial in understanding the procreation and birth of Jesus Christ:


How God Conceived Jesus in Mary’s Womb


Jesus Became The Only Begotten Son of God AT THE RESURRECTION


Jesus, Descendent Of David, Resurrected Seed Of God


Q & A Series: Did Jesus have Mary's DNA?


Q & A Series: Since we know that Jesus is God incarnate or 100% God and 100% man, Where did He (Jesus) get His blood?


I hope this is helpful to you my friend.


God bless you Grant,


Craigo (my nickname)


Craig Bluemel - The Bible Answer Stand Ministry (www.bibleanswerstand.org) 

1 Peter 3:15 Always be ready to give a logical defense to anyone who asks you to account for the hope that is in you, but do it courteously and respectfully.   






Return to BAS Homepage   ·   Craig's Bible Studies   ·   E-mail Craig   ·   Write Us   ·   Writings & Links to BAS Friends   ·   Q & A   ·   Return to Top of This Page